 # The textbook of the electronic student - Mihai P. Dinca

Author: Mihai P. Dinca
Publisher: University of Bucharest
Year of publication: 2003

#### Electronics concepts

Electronics uses many concepts that you are familiar with from the study of the chapter Electricity in physics taught in high school and in the course of Electricity and Magnetism.

However, in electronics the meaning of some of them is slightly different and, for the calculation of circuits, it is more advantageous to use other methods than those used there.

IThe whole of physics uses models to capture the essential features of real-world behavior. The laws are formulated for these models and what we can hope for is that the modeling has kept what is important in the behavior of the real physical system; if we have enough information and do not make mistakes in applying the laws or performing the calculations, we can predict, with satisfactory accuracy, the result of an experiment.

The same thing happens in electronics. The wire (called, for simplicity, conductor) that connects two circuit terminals is modeled with an ideal conductor, without resistance, and drawn on diagrams it a continuous line.

Its physical arc correspondentHowever, a non-zero electric resistance always presents accumulations of electric charges which, through the created electrostatic field, interact with the other nearby conductors, and, in addition, through the created magnetic field, interact with the other electric currents in the circuit.

We continue to use the ideal conductor model not because we do not know these phenomena but because we know that in the problem we are dealing with they produce negligible effects.

#### CHAPTER 1 - Introductory notions

A. Circuit elements, real and ideal
B. Current intensity
C. Electrical voltage
D. Ohm's law; resistors
E. Circuit analysis
F. Measurement of continuous regime intensities
G. Measurement of DC voltages
H. Measurement of alternating currents and voltages (sinusoidal regime)
I. Measurement of alternating currents and voltages of any shape

• Problems solved
• Proposed issues
• Experimental work

#### CHAPTER 2 - Voltage and current sources

A. Voltage sources
B. Representation of Thevenin
C. Ideal current source; Norton representation
D. Equivalent resistance
E. The resistive divider

• Problems solved
• Proposed issues
• Experimental work

#### CHAPTER 3 - Semiconductor diodes

A. Static characteristic
B. Catalog data
C. Pregnancy law method
D. Equivalent circuit for small variations
E. Experimental verification of an exponential dependence

• Problems solved
• Proposed issues
• Experimental work

#### CHAPTER 4 - Bipolar transistors

1. Common base connection
1.A. Transistors: structure, symbols and mode of operation
1.B. Input feature
1.C Transfer characteristics
1.D. Output feature
1.E. Transistor saturation
1.F. Overcoming the difficulties of connecting with the common base
1.G. Power sources with bipolar transistors
• Problems solved
• Proposed issues
• Experimental work

#### CHAPTER 5 - Recovery and stabilization

A. The structure of an electronic power supply
B. Monoalternating rectifier
C. Capacitive filter
D. Double alternating rectifier
E. Zener diode voltage stabilizer

• Problems solved
• Proposed issues
• Experimental work

#### CHAPTER 6 - Devices with negative dynamic resistance

1. General behavior
1.A Evolution of the operating point on the characteristic
1.B Negative dynamic resistance can cause instability
• Problems solved
• Proposed issues

#### CHAPTER 7 - Field effect transistors

General presentation

• Metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors (MOSFET)
• Junction Transistors (JFET)

#### CHAPTER 8 - Effect of temperature on characteristics

A. Thermistors
B. Semiconductor diodes
C. Bipolar transistors
D. Field effect transistors

• Problems solved
• Proposed issues
• Experimental works