Small automations

Small automations - Use of the signal given by the transducer

Reading time: 2 minute

Author: GD Oprescu
Publisher: Tineretului
Collection: Mini dexterous
Year of publication: 1962

What is automatic?

A branch of electronics, particularly interesting for human requirements, has been called automatic. Born out of the desire to make human work easier, the automatic began to occupy an increasingly important place in everyday life, eliminating a series of stereotypical and boring operations that took a long time to perform.

Some believe that automation is a young science, born of electronics. But its beginnings are lost in the mists of history. For example, the first automaton was a trap. Some simple applications of automation were known only to initiates - the priests of ancient temples. Such an automaton was used, for example, by Egyptian priests to open the "automatic" doors of a temple when the "sacred fire" was lit on the altar.

The Greek scholar Herodotus, endowed with a great spirit of observation, left us a precise description of the installation that worked with the help of steam. Antiquity and the Middle Ages also knew a series of automatons.

The development of electrical engineering gave birth to the first elements of automation: the switch, the electromagnet, the relay, the electric motor, the photoelectric cell, the capacitor, the resistance, the thermocouple, etc. Right from the moment of their creation, these elements have been used in various automations.

The emergence of electronic tubes and semiconductors revolutionized the technique of automation. Today, the requirements are much higher than before; but also the possibilities offered by the technique are huge.

What does the paper present?

This paper presents a series of examples of small automations easy to achieve, especially by young radio amateurs. Some assemblies are based on electrical applications. At each installation, however, there are several variants of use, especially electronic, which work with greater precision and safety in operation, presenting where appropriate both the variants with electronic tubes and semiconductors.

The structure of the book

CHAPTER I - Translator devices

  • Contact transducers
  • Resistance transducers
  • Transducers with inductance modification
  • Induction transducers
  • Thermoelectric transducers
  • Piezoelectric transducers
  • Capacitive transducers
  • Sound transducers
  • Light detector
  • Radiation transducers

CHAPTER II - And now… at work!

  • Using the signal given by the transducer
  • Assembly of automation assemblies
  • Electromagnetic relay and its construction
  • Time relays
  • Simplified version of clock-relay
  • Time relay with a single electric tube
  • Time relay with double triode
  • Time relay with universal power supply
  • Time relay with transistors
  • Vending machines for various services
  • Variant with transistors
  • Automatic sound-operated relay
  • Variant with transistors
  • Photocell relay
  • A simple light relay
  • Light relay - variant with transistors
  • Thermistor relay
  • Automatic with thermorelay for motor protection
  • Automatic for artificial light shooting
  • Automated electric fan
  • Automatic safety
  • Automation for the winter tree
  • Voltage stabilizer
  • Protecting the voltage stabilizer
  • Surge relay
  • Design and construction of network transformers
  • Abaca for the calculation of network transformers

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