Electronic devices and circuits - What are IMPATT diodes?

Electronic devices and circuits - What are IMPATT diodes?

Reading time: 7 minute

Authors: D. Dascalu, M. Profirescu, A. Rusu, I. Costea
Publisher: Didactica si Pedagogica - Bucharest
Year of publication: 1982

What does the book present?

This paper represents the course of "Electronic devices and circuits" taught in the second and third years of the "Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications" (engineers). This course appears for the first time in its complete form. It was developed by a group of teachers from the "Department of Devices", circuits and electronic devices of the "Bucharest Polytechnic Institute".

The authors' contribution is the following: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Eng. D. Dascalu - Chapters 7, 5 (partially). 6, 9, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17; sl dr. eng. A. Rusu - chapters 2, 3, 4, 7, 10; sl dr. eng. MD Profirescu - chapters 8, 11, 15; sl dr. eng. I. Costea - chapter 5 (partial).

The course "Electronic devices and circuits" presents the physical phenomena that underlie the main semiconductor devices, the behavior of these devices in circuits, as well as the basic circuits that perform certain electronic functions.

The concept of the device circuit model is essential. This model is the strictly necessary bridge that leads from the understanding of electronic phenomena in semiconductors to the understanding of electrical phenomena in electronic circuits.

Another important idea is that of the close device-circuit interdependence. A well-designed circuit masks the "defects" of the semiconductor device and exploits its "qualities". The dispersion of the parameters from one copy to another and the dependence of these parameters on the operating conditions are indeed major defects of the semiconductor devices. It is interesting that some of these defects appear attenuated in integrated circuits.

Integrated circuits as such are not the subject of this course. However, the aim was to present the models and elementary circuits to prepare the understanding of the integrated circuit diagrams.

Book structure:


1.1. The object of the course
1.2. Properties of electronic devices
1.3. Study of electronic circuits


2.1. Introduction
2.2. The theory of energy bands of the solid body
2.3. Electrons and gaps in semiconductors
2.4. Pregnancy carrier statistics
2.5. Transport phenomena
2.5.1. Field currents
2.5.2. Diffusion currents
2.5.3. Semiconductor current equations
2.6. Generation and recombination of load carriers
2.7. Continuity equations
2.8. Basic equations of semiconductor devices


3.1. Introduction
3.2. Junction to thermal equilibrium
3.3. Static characteristic of the pn junction
3.3.1. Physical phenomena in the electrically polarized pn junction
3.3.2. Determination of static characteristic
3.3.3. The effect of the semiconductor surface on the static characteristic
3.3.4. High level injection effects
3.3.5. Junction breakage pn
3.3.6. Temperature dependence of the static characteristic
3.4. The dynamic regime of the pn junction
3.4.1. Junction response to low and low frequency signal
3.4.2. Equivalent low signal circuit of the junction in non-stationary mode
3.5. Semiconductor diodes made on the basis of the pn junction
3.5.1. Rectifier diodes
3.5.2. Detector diodes
3.5.3. Switching diodes
3.5.4. Varicap diodes
3.5.5. Stabilizing diodes (Zener)
3.5.6. Diode tunnel
3.6. Semiconductor diode circuits


4.1. Semiconductor energy diagram in the vicinity of the surface
4.2. Energy diagram of the metal-semiconductor contact at thermal equilibrium
4.3. Static characteristic of metal-semiconductor contact
4.4. Schottky diode


5.1. Introduction
5.1.1. Symbols, notations, types of features
5.1.2. Principle of operation (transistor effect)
5.1.3. Construction of bipolar transistors
5.2. Transistor current relations
5.2.1. Transistor current components
5.2.2. Issuer efficiency
5.2.3. The transport factor
5.2.4. Description of the operation of the transistor in the normal active region
5.3. Transistor theory in stationary regime, at low injection levels
5 3.1. The model used in the calculations
5.3.2. Distribution of minority carriers in the base
5.3.3. Transistor current expression
5.3.4. Base thickness modulation (Early effect)
5.3.5. The effect of generation and recombination in the region of transition to low injection levels
5.3.6. Decreased emitter efficiency at high injection levels
5.4. The Ebers-Moll model
5.4.1. Model with current generators controlled by terminals
5.4.2. Model with current generators, controlled by diode currents
5.4.3. Experimental determination of parameters
5.4.4. The effect of the distributed resistance of the base
5.4.5. Transistor modeling in various working regions
5.4.6. Ebers-Moll model for an npn transistor
5.5. Static characteristics of the bipolar transistor
5.5.1. Static characteristics in the common base connection (BC)
5.5.2. Static characteristics in the common emitter connection (EC)
5.5.3. Polarization of the transistor at a given operating point, in the normal active region
5.5.4. The transistor in switching schemes - limitations to low voltages
5.5.5. Typical voltages at transistor junctions
5.5.6. Avalanche multiplication at the collector junction
5.6. Limitations in operation - due to temperature variation and power dissipation
5.6.1. Limitations in storage and operating temperature
5.6.2. Variation of electrical characteristics with temperature
5.6.3. Stabilization of the static operating point in relation to temperature variations
5.6.4. Choice of polarization network elements
5.6.5. Thermal compensation
5.6.6. Thermal packaging
5.6.7 Internal instabilities. Secondary breakthrough
5.7. Dynamic transistor, load control model
5.7.1. Dynamic operation
5.7.2. The load stored in the neutral base of the transistor
5.7.3. Validity of the variable load control model
5.7.4. Load stored in space load regions
5.7.5. Concluding remarks
5.8. "Natural" equivalent circuit for low signal operation
5.8.1. Modeling the small signal response based on phenomena occurring in neutral regions
5.8.2. Completion of the equivalent circuit of the transistor
5.8.3. The effect of modulating the thickness of the base
5.9. Examples of using the low frequency equivalent circuit
5.9.1. Amplification stage with common emitter
5.9.2. Dynamic characteristic and signal amplitude limits
5.9.3. Choosing the static operating point
5.9.4. Analysis of the dynamic regime at low signals of a circuit with transistors
5.9.5. Miller and his dual theorem
5.10. High frequency transistor
5.10.1. Short-circuit current amplification (emitter-common connection)
5.10.2. The amplification-band product
5.11. Experimental determination of the parameters of the natural equivalent circuit
5.11.1. Quadripole parameters
5.11.2. Hybrid parameters
5.11.3. Determining the elements of the equivalent circuit


6.1. Overview
6.1.1. Construction, operating principle
6.1.2. Symbols, notations, types of static characteristics
6.2. Static voltage current characteristics
6.2.1. Idealized symmetrical model
6.2.2. Operation at low drain-source voltages
6.2.3. Drain characteristics
6.2.4. Transfer feature
6.2.5. The effect of temperature variation
6.3. TECJ polarity
6.4. Equivalent small signal circuit
6.4.1. Circuit equivalent to low frequencies
6.4.2. Circuit equivalent to high frequencies
6.5. Field effect transistor with junction used in amplification stages
6.5.5. Floor common source
6.5.2. Common drainage floor


7.1. MOS capacitor
7.2. Semiconductor inversion in the presence of a junction
7.3. Static characteristics of the MOS transistor
7.4. Types of MOS transistors. symbols
7.5. Variable low signal regime
7.6. DC power supply of MOS transistors
7.7. Load transfer devices
7.7.1. MOS capacitor in deep emptying mode
7.7.2. Three-phase load-coupled (CCD) devices


8.1. Introduction
8.2. Pnpn diode
8.2.1. Static current-voltage characteristic
8.2.2. Physical processes in the pnpn diode
8.2.3. The devil
8.3. thyristor
8.3.1. The conventional thyristor
8.3.2. The tetrode thyristor
8.3.3. The bioperational thyristor
8.3.4. Triac
8.4. The junction transistor
8.4.1. Physical processes in TUJ. Static characteristics
8.4.2. Programmable junction transistor
8.4.3. Complementary unijouction transistor


9.1. Overview
9.2. Gunn devices
9.3. IMPACT diodes
9.4. PIN diode


10.1. Introduction
10.2. Absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the solid body
10.3. Optoelectronic devices based on the internal photoelectric effect
10.3.1. photoresist
10.3.2. Photodiode
10.3.3. The photoelement
10.3.4. phototransistor
10.3.5. The photo thyristor
10.4. Emission of light radiation in semiconductors
10.5. Optoelectric devices
10.5.1. Light emitting diode (LED)
10.5.2. Cathode ray tube. kinescope
10.6. Optoelectronic liquid crystal display elements


11.1. Introduction
11.2. Semiconductor diode switching mode
11.2.1. The equation of the load method for the pn junction
11.2.2. Direct switching of the junction to pn
11.2.3. Reverse switching of the pn junction
11.3. Bipolar transistor switching mode
11.3.1. Equations of the load method for the bipolar transistor
11.3.2. Switching the bipolar transistor to the active region
11.3.3. Switching the bipolar transistor in the saturation region
11.4. Switching mode of field effect transistors


12.1. The nature of electrical noise
12.1.1. Overview
12.1.2. Thermal noise
12.1.3. Noise (Shottky)
12.1.4. Noise l / f
12.2. Noise in amplifiers
12.2.1. Noise factor
12.2.2. Optimal resistance of the signal generator
12.3. Noise of semiconductor devices
12.3.1. The noise of the bipolar tianzistor
12.3.2. Noise of field effect transistors


13.1. Overview
13.1.1. Electronic amplifiers
13.1.2. Small signal amplifiers. distortion
13.1.3. Classification
13.1.4. Amplification stages
13.1.5. Coupling the floors
13.2. Quadripole amplifier (DIPORT)
13.2.1. Equivalent circuit. Quadripole parameters
13.2.2. Unilateral amplifiers
13.2.3. Ideal amplifiers
13.2.4. An application of the ideal voltage amplifier concept: elementary circuits with integrated operational amplifier
13.3. Floors with bipolar transistors
13.3.1. Introduction
13.3.2. Floor with transistor in common emitter connection (EC)
13.3.3. Floor with distributed load
13.3.4. Transistor stage in DC connection (repeater on emitter)
13.3.5. I transistor stage in the base-common connection (BC)
13.4. Compound floors with bipolar transistors
13.4.1. CC - EC and CC - CC composite floors
13.4.2. EC - BC composite floor (cascod)
13.4.3. CC - BC composite floor (with emitter coupling)
13.5. Floors with high input impedance
13.5.1. Bootstrap scheme with bipolar transistor
13.5.2. Field effect transistor bootstrap scheme
13.5.3. Schemes I TECJ and bipolar transistor
13.6. Amplification stages composed of field effect transistors
13.6.1. Cascode floor I transistors with field effect
13.6.2. Cascode floors with TEC and bipolar transistor
13.6.3. Other amplifiers with TECJ and bipolar transistor
13 7. Selective amplifiers
13.7.1. Floor with transistor in EC connection and resonant collector derivation circuit
13.7.2. MATCHING
13.7.3. Instability
13.7.4. Floor tuned with transistors connected by emitter


14.1. General properties of the negative reaction
14.1.1. Reaction amplifiers
14.1.2. Amplifier desensitization
14.1.3. The effect of the negative reaction on the distortions
14.1.4. The effect of the negative reaction on the parasitic signals
14.1.5. Improving the frequency response
14.1.6. Modification of input and output impedances
14.2. Topology of reaction circuits
14.2.1. Types of reaction
14.2.2. Reaction voltage amplifier
14.2.3. Transimpedance amplifier with reaction
14.3. Node sampling and node comparison reaction
14.3.1. Description with quadripole parameters
14.3.2. Unilateral transmission on the reaction loop
14.3.3. Reaction theory with node sampling and node comparison
14.3.4. Examples of application of the theory
14.4. Loop sampling and loop reaction
14.4.1. General theory
14.4.2. The point of the table problem
14.4.3. An example circuit
14.5. Node sampling reaction and loop comparison
14.5.1. Reaction applied to a voltage amplifier
14.5.2. Example of applying the theory of an amplifier with two bipolar transistors
14.6. Loop sampling and node comparison reaction
14.6.1. Series-parallel reaction theory
14.6.2. Example of a circuit with two bipolar transistors


15.1. Introduction
15.2. Single-phase rectifiers
15.2.1. Single-alternating rectifier without filter
15.2.2. Double alternating rectifiers without filter
15.2.3. Rectifiers with capacitive filter
15.2.4. Rectifiers with pi filter
15.2.5. Voltage multiplier rectifiers
15.3. Voltage stabilizers
15.3.1. Overview
15.3.2. Parametric stabilizer with stabilizing diode
15.3.3. Reaction stabilizers without error amplifier
15.4. Series stabilizers with error amplifier
15.4.1. Improving the performance of the stabilizer by negative reaction
15.4.2. Series stabilizers with advanced error amplifier


16.1. Introduction
16.1.1. Overview
16.1.2. Harmonic oscillator with positive feedback amplifier. Relatia Barkhausen.
16.1.3. Classification of harmonic oscillators
16.2. Problems of analyzing the operation of oscillators
16.2.1. The theory of harmonic oscillators
16.2.2. Example of applying a linear theory
16.2.3. Quasilinear theory
16.3. Limiting the amplitude of oscillation
16.3.1. Overview
16.3.2. Automatic control of amplification with TEC
16.3.3. Control elements with thermal inertia
16.3.4. Amplitude limiting with diodes
16.3.5. Amplitude limitation by nonlinearity of the amplifier element
16.4. RC oscillators
16.4.1. Overview
16.4.2. Wien network oscillator and voltage amplifier (Wien bridge oscillator)
16.4.3. Wien network oscillator and current amplifier
16.4.4. Double T mains oscillators and voltage amplifier
16.5. LC oscillators
16.5.1. Limiting the oscillation amplitude in LC oscillators as bipolar transistors
16.5.2. LC oscillators with bipolar transistors and transformer coupling
16.5.3. "Three-point" oscillators with bipolar transistors
16.5.4. Dynamic polarization in oscillators with field effect transistors
16.5.5. Oscillators. "three-point" with field effect transistors
16.6. Stability of the oscillation frequency
16.6.1. Overview
16.6.2. "Direct" stability
16.6.3. "Indirect" stability. A criterion of stability
16.7. Quartz crystal oscillators
16.7.1. Quartz crystal
16.7.2. Oscillators that use series resonance
16.7.3. Oscillators that use parallel resonance mode


17.1. Amplitude modulation (MA)
17.1.1. The spectrum of the signed MA
17.1.2. Amplitude modulation systems
17.2. Analog multiplication
17.2.1. A solution in principle
17.2.2. Analog multiplier with TEC
17.3. Modulation by "choppare"
17.3.1 The principle of modulation by "choppare"
17.3.2. Schemes with diode bridges
17.4. "Nonlinear" modulation
17.4.1. The principle of nonlinear modulation
17.4.2. Field effect transistor modulator
17.5. Direct mediation (linear)
17.6. Medium value detector
17.6.1. Overview
17.6.2. Principle of operation of the medium value detector
17.6.3. Detection circuits
17.7. The top detector
17.8. Synchronous detection (coherent)


Annex 3.1 - Conventions adopted for the literal symbols of voltages and currents
Annex 5.1 - Effect of non-uniform doping of the base
Annex 5.2 - Frequency range in which the natural equivalent circuit is variable
Annex 5.3 - Dependence of the parameters of the natural equivalent circuit on the working conditions
Annex 6.1 - Theory of the field effect transistor with junction gate
Annex 8.1 - Other semiconductor devices with junctions
Annex 11.1 - Semiconductor diodes for switching
Annex 11.2 - Bipolar switching transistors
Annex 13.1 - Distortions. Operating classes
Annex 13.2 - Effect of low frequency circuit capacitors
Annex 16.1 - Oscillation condition for an electronic circuit
Annex 16.2 - Modified double T network oscillators and current amplifier
Annex 16.3 - Limitation of the oscillation amplitude in oscillators with bipolar transistors
Annex 16.4 - Properties of LC resonant circuits
Annex 17.1 - The theory of the peak detector

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