Electrical measurements - Signal conditioners

Electrical measurements - Signal conditioners

Reading time: 2 minute

Author: David Valeriu
Faculty of Electrical Engineering - "Gh. Asachi" Technical University - Iasi
Year of publication: 2009

This paper is taught 2nd year students, electrical engineering, from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, "Gh. Asachi" Technical University of Iasi.

What does the paper present?

In Chapter 1, entitled "The Measurement Process", after an introduction in the field, the main elements that intervene in the measurement of some electrical quantities are presented, namely: the measuring device, the unit of measurement, the measurement method, the measuring means, the standard.

Chapter 2 "Processing measurement results" it is mainly dedicated to estimating measurement errors. The measurement uncertainty is determined based on systematic errors and random errors, highlighting the possibilities of reducing these two types of errors.

In Chapter 3 "Signal Conditioners" there are voltage reducers, current reducers, power reducers, but also measuring amplifiers, of which the instrumentation amplifier has a very important role.

Course structure

CHAPTER 1. The measurement process

1.1. measuring
1.2. Unit of measurement
1.3. Measurement method
1.4. Measuring instruments
1.4.1. transducers Sensors - execution elements Generating transducers - modulating transducers Energy and functional diagram of transducers
1.4.2. Metrological characteristics of electrical measuring instruments Measurement accuracy - measurement error / uncertainty
1.5.1. Definition. Classification
1.5.2. Electricity standards
1.5.3. Voltage standards
1.5.4. Calibrated standards and elements R, L, C Standard resistors and resistance boxes Standard capacitors and capacitor boxes Inductive standards
1.5.5. Time and frequency standards The evolution of watches Quartz frequency standards Time stairs
1.5.6. Quantum metrology

CHAPTER 2. Processing the measurement results

2.1. Defining and classifying measurement errors
2.2. Estimation of systematic errors
2.2.1. Estimation of systematic errors in direct measurements
2.2.2. Estimation of systematic errors in indirect measurements. Propagation of measurement errors
2.3. Estimation of random errors (fidelity, random)
2.3.1. The characteristics of a set of measurements
2.3.2. Theoretical probability distributions Normal distribution (gauss) Distribution t (student)
2.3.3. Estimation of random errors in indirect measurements - error propagation
2.4. Estimating the total error
2.5. Models for determining measurement uncertainty
2.5.1. ISO model
2.5.2. The model of engineers
2.6. On terminology

CHAPTER 3. Signal conditioners

3.1. Voltage reducers
3.1.1 Voltage dividers
3.1.2 Voltage transformers
3.2. Current reducers
3.2.1. there are
3.2.2. Current transformers
3.3. Power reducers
3.3.1. Definition, operation
3.3.2. Fixed attenuators
3.3.3 Adjustable attenuators
3.4 Measuring amplifiers
3.4.1 Basic configurations using operational amplifiers
3.4.2 Instrumentation amplifier



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