What are CMOS integrated circuits and how did they come about?
The CMOS family of integrated circuits was developed around the same time as the TTL family, but initially had a smaller expansion due to longer propagation times and implicitly lower operating frequency (typically between 1 and 10 MHz).
They are used to make these circuits MOS transistors with N channel and P channel, avoiding the use of resistors.
The CMOS family offers a number of advantages over TTL circuits
- increasing the integration density about ten times, thus allowing the integration of additional functions;
- the input resistance is very high, the input currents are very low, which corresponds to a higher connection factor than the TTL;
- the technology is simple, so it's cheap;
- the power consumed in static regime is very small, negligible;
- it is possible to use a wide supply voltage range (for 4000 series, 3/18 V);
- they have a (much) higher margin of noise than that found in the TTL family.
The major disadvantage of the 4000 series consists of longer propagation time than TTL, but due to subsequent technological improvements the propagation time has been considerably reduced in fast CMOS series.
1. 4000 SERIES - GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
- MOS transistors used in CMOS circuits, classic symbol and simplified representation.
2. CMOS INVERTER
- Analysis of dynamic operation
- Power consumed in dynamic mode
3. OTHER ELEMENTAL CIRCUITS FROM THE CMOS FAMILY
- Operation of the SI-NO CMOS gate
- Gate operation OR NOT CMOS
4. RULES OF USING CMOS CIRCUITS
5. 4000 SERIES CMOS CIRCUIT PARAMETERS
- Guaranteed voltage levels
- Noise margin
- Input currents
- The connection factor
- Power supply
- Power dissipated by a CMOS gate
- Propagation time
- The merit factor
- Fast CMOS series 74HCxxx, 74HCTxxx
- 74ACxxx, 74ACTxxx (high performance series)
- The main parameters of the CMOS integrated circuit series
- BiCMOS series
- Low voltage series (LV, LVT - low voltage)
6. TRANSMISSION GATE
- Transmission gate applications
- Analog demultiplexers
- Digitally controlled gain amplifier
- OR-EXCLUSIVE gate
- Analog multiplexer
- CMOS multiplexer 4051, block diagram according to the catalog sheet
- CMOS multiplexer 4052, block diagram according to the catalog sheet
- CMOS multiplexer 4053, block diagram according to the catalog sheet
- Analog multiplexer applications
7. CMOS CIRCUITS WITH THREE STATES
8. TRENDS IN THE STRUCTURE OF LOGIC CIRCUIT FAMILIES